David Gilbert, BA, MA, DipM, PhD, is Professor of Marketing in the School of. European Studies at the University of Surrey. Prior to working in academia he was. Retail Marketing Management book. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The second edition of this text offers an approach that. You do not know the contents of this PDF Retail Marketing Management by David Gilbert. () ePub book? This book has many.
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Objectives of the study:To explore the impact of mega shopping malls on small retail business sector in Coimbatore city Research Methodology and sample design:This study is explorative in nature and based on survey method.
The whole data required for the study have been collected in three forms. The primary data relating to the small retail shops were collected by administering an interview schedule. The secondary data required for the conceptualization of the problem of the study, profile of modern mega malls and different reviews of related studies were obtained from various published and unpublished records, reports, books, journals, and magazines.
Besides that the researcher had discussion with some mall authorities and retail shop owners to understand the problems of study. The researcher follows a stratified random plus judgment- sampling technique in this study. There are twenty four corporation wards identified and listed by the researcher as major commercial areas with huge number of shops and establishments within the corporation limit. Out of the twenty four wards fifty percent known as twelve wards were taken as sample wards.
In all these wards at an average of about three hundred shopping units are situated. From these wards five per cent of each selected sample corporation wards, known as fifteen units from each word totally retailers were taken by the researcher as sample units.
The selection of business unit was made by following the judgment of the researcher in each ward. Utmost care was undertaken in each ward to represent different type of business ventures. Tools used for the study:The researcher has employed the following tools to suit the requirements of the present study.
Percentage analysis. Over time, permanent shops began to open daily and gradually supplanted the periodic markets. Peddlers filled in the gaps in distribution by travelling door-to-door in order to sell produce and wares. The physical market was characterised by transactional exchange, bartering systems were commonplace and the economy was characterised by local trading.
Braudel reports that, in , goods travelled relatively short distances - grain 5—10 miles; cattle 40—70 miles; wool and wollen cloth 20—40 miles. However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar - calico cloth from India, porcelain, silk and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar, rum and coffee from the New World.
It is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. Although the rise of consumer culture and marketing in Britain and Europe have been studied extensively, less is known about developments elsewhere. The rise of a consumer culture led to the commercial investment in carefully managed company image, retail signage, symbolic brands, trademark protection and the brand concepts of baoji, hao, lei, gongpin, piazi and pinpai, which roughly equate with Western concepts of family status, quality grading, and upholding traditional Chinese values p.
Eckhardt and Bengtsson's analysis suggests that brands emerged in China as a result of the social needs and tensions implicit in consumer culture, in which brands provide social status and stratification.
Thus, the evolution of brands in China stands in sharp contrast to the West where manufacturers pushed brands onto the market in order to differentiate, increase market share and ultimately profits pp — Marketing in seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe[ edit ] Josiah Wedgewood's 18th century techniques exhibited many of the characteristics of modern marketing Scholars have identified specific instances of marketing practices in England and Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
As trade between countries or regions grew, companies required information on which to base business decisions. Individuals and companies carried out formal and informal research on trade conditions. As early as , Johann Fugger travelled from Augsburg to Graben in order to gather information on the international textile industry. He exchanged detailed letters on trade conditions in relevant areas. In the early 18th-century, Daniel Defoe , a London merchant, published information on trade and economic resources of England and Scotland.
Other scholars have found evidence of advertising and promotion in eighteenth century France and Italy as well as Britain.
Far from being primitive efforts, early advertising showed a high level of sophistication in its execution and abilility to reach mass audiences. He also inferred that selling at lower prices would lead to higher demand and recognised the value of achieving scale economies in production.
By cutting costs and lowering prices, Wedgewood was able to generate higher overall profits. He also practiced planned obsolescence and understood the importance of 'celebrity marketing' - that is supplying the nobility, often at prices below cost and of obtaining royal patronage, for the sake of the publicity and cudos generated. The business historian, Richard S. Tedlow , argues that any attempt to segment markets prior to was highly fragmented since the economy was characterised by small, regional suppliers who mostly sold goods on a local or regional basis.
Outside the major metropolitan cities, few stores could afford to serve one type of clientele exclusively. However, gradually retail shops introduced innovations that would allow them to separate wealthier customers from the lower classes and peasants.
One technique was to have a window opening out onto the street from which customers could be served. This allowed the sale of goods to the common people, without encouraging them to come inside. Another solution, that came into vogue from the late sixteenth century was to invite favoured customers into a back-room of the store, where goods were permanently on display.
Yet another technique that emerged around the same time was to hold a showcase of goods in the shopkeeper's private home for the benefit of wealthier clients. Samuel Pepys, for example, writing in , describes being invited to the home of a retailer to view a wooden jack.
A study of the German book trade found examples of both product differentiation and market segmentation in the s. Ford famously said that customers could own a car in any colour as long as it was black. Until the nineteenth century, Western economies were characterised by small regional suppliers who sold goods on a local or regional basis. However, as transportation systems improved from the mid nineteenth century, the economy became more unified allowing companies to distribute standardised, branded goods at national level.
This gave rise to a much broader mass marketing mindset. Manufacturers tended to insist on strict standardisation in order to achieve scale economies with a view to keeping production costs down and also to achieving market penetration in the early stages of a product's life cycle.
In the early twentieth century, as market size increased, it became more commonplace for manufacturers to produce a variety of models pitched at different quality points designed to meet the needs of various demographic and lifestyle market segments, giving rise to the widespread practice of market segmentation and product differentation.
This insight led to the exploration of other factors such as lifestyles, values, attitudes and beliefs in market segmentation and advertising.
Smith published his now classic article, Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies in , he noted that he was simply documenting marketing practices that had been observed for some time and which he described as a "natural force".
To meet this demand, universities began offering courses in commerce, economics and marketing. Marketing, as a discipline, was first taught in universities in the very early twentieth century.
From the outset, researchers tended to identify two strands of historical research; the history of marketing practice  and the history of marketing thought which was fundamentally concerned with the rise of marketing education and dissecting the way that marketing was taught and studied. History of marketing practice[ edit ] The practice of marketing may have been carried out for millennia, but the modern concept of marketing as a professional practice appears to have emerged the post industrial corporate world.